The red-chested buttonquail (Turnix pyrrhothorax) is a species of bird in the family Turnicidae. It is endemic to Australia. The species is generally regarded as widespread, although uncommon, in New South Wales, Queensland, northern Western Australia and the Northern Territory, and classified as Vulnerable in Victoria.
The red-chested buttonquail is a small reddish-brown, ground-running bird, which avoids flying. The female is brighter and slightly larger in size and weight. The female is polyandrous, initiating courtship among several males and expelling rival females from her territory.
Adult red-chested buttonquails are 12–16 cm long with males weighing 27-46 g and females 31-83 g. The species is smaller in size than the painted button-quail. Viewed from behind, red-chested buttonquail look uniformly pale grey across the upper-wings and back. Side-on, the rufous wash on the upper-parts of the red-chested buttonquail is obvious. From close range its thick blue-grey beak, pink legs and feet, and pale eyes can be seen.